By John E. G. Raymont (Auth.)
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Additional info for Phytoplankton. Plankton and Productivity in The Oceans
As can be seen from Fig. 24, there is a rise in the sea surface by about a metre across the convergence and a change in water density. This is balanced by the Coriolis Force associated with the strong West Wind Drift that flows around the Antarctic continent between 40° and 65°S. The strongest winds, however, occur in the zone between 50° and 60°S and this results in a small northwards com ponent in the flow in these latitudes. Thus there is a convergence of water at the Fig. 24. Schematic representation of the currents, temperatures and water masses of the Antarctic regions with the Antarctic and Sub-Tropical Convergences (from Sverdrup et aL, 1942).
Detrital POM generally forms, however, the dominant part, 43 Chemical Composition of Seawater even in near-surface waters, so that this relationship does not arise in a simple, direct way. As discussed by Parsons (1975) the visual appearance of much of the POM does not conform to that of the remains of organisms. It seems probable that considerable amounts of POM are formed from dissolved organic matter (DOM), by aggregation through the action of bacterial growth. Furthermore, inorganic particles can adsorb organic material on their surfaces and there is evidence to suggest that interfacial processes related to bubble formation at the sea surface may lead to the formation of POM.
Richardson, 1976). The rings are 150 to 300 km in diameter, have peak tangential velocities of 100 cm/sec, and reach to depths of 3000 m. Consequently they raise the thermocline by 500 m or so and have considerable potential as well as kinetic energy. The rings have a biomass considerably higher than that in the surrounding sea, and the biological contrast is especially marked in the distribution of slope forms such as Nematoscelis megalops (Wiebe and Boyd, 1978). Anticyclonic or warm core rings also form on the coastal side of the Gulf Stream.