By Kenneth L. Pike
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An enticing and cutting edge four-level direction for lower-secondary scholars. each one unit of the Student's publication is split into three workable steps with transparent goals and results. scholars can see speedy effects via typical 'Use what you recognize' sections on the finish of every step. 'Life and tradition' sections and a continual tale offers wealthy examining fabric whereas stimulating scholars' imaginations.
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Constructing analyzing abilities is designed for examining classes on the intermediate and complicated point. As in prior variations, this article maintains to add a variety of fascinating and numerous choices in addition to a entire instructing gear. utilizing perform prose just like the sort they'll stumble upon within the lecture room, scholars are inspired to investigate, interpret, query, or even problem the phrases of the author.
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Additional info for Phonemics: A Technique for Reducing Languages to Writing
In terms of t h e vowel c h a r t , what differences do you hear? 6b. Repeat w i t h the l i p s spread wide apart. 6o. Repeat with the mouth wide open. 6d. Repeat w i t h t h e mouth wide open and t h e l i p s somewhat rounded. Speakers of English are l i k e l y t o u t i l i z e vocoid g l i d e s 2 from one tongue p o s i t i o n t o another, or from one l i p f o r mation t o another, within t h e i r words. Thus in the English word boat t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be some l i p movement, with more rounding at the end of the s y l l a b l e nuoleus than a t i t s beginning.
There are various other teohnioal objections to the accuracy of a "Vowel Triangle" scheme of any kind—but its practioal usefulness seems to be well established. For a brief discussion of the theoretical problems involved, consult Daniel Jones, An Outline £f English Phonetios. 6th Edition~rifew York: E. P. , 1940), 36-38. Fig. 15. Voooid Grid Superimposed on Faoe Diagram. Highest Point of Tongue x Tongue Position for [»]•••• Tongue Position for [ i ] — . Note: For the lower varieties of voeoids, the lips do not need to be quite so rounded as for the higher varieties.
This type of definition by way of illustration is highly unsatisfactory inasmuch as speakers of English do not all pronounoe their words in the same fashion. Some speakers pronounoe the vowel of that word with no perceptible glide at Exeroise 7. Take an English sentenoe pronounoing the syllables one after another. For eaoh syllable, maintain the tongue position whioh you would normally have for the vowels, but round the lips sharply. Then repeat the syllable making the lips widespread. Exercise 8, With a oompanion, praotioe mimioing rounded and unrounded vowels of all types and with different degrees of rounding.