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Extra resources for Nutrition and Lactation in the Dairy Cow
Prolactin has an important role in the development and differentiation of t h e m a m m a r y gland, whereas growth h o r m o n e may have a m o r e important role in orchestrating the e x t r a m a m m a r y adaptations. Emphasis is placed on suppressing the action of insulin; its serum concentration is reduced while concentrations of antagonistic h o r m o n e s are either maintained or increased; in addition t h e responsiveness of some tissues to insulin is decreased. In contrast the responsiveness of adipose tissue to catecholamines is increased.
During lactation, the ability of insulin to stimulate pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat adipose tissue is lost (Kilgour and V e r n o n , 1987) d u e to a failure of insulin to stimulate the release of its second messenger (Kilgour and V e r n o n , 1986). It thus appears that some c o m p o n e n t involved in the passage of the insulin-induced signal through the plasma m e m b r a n e is altered during lactation. , 1979) and sheep (Vernon, Clegg and Flint, 1981, 1985) t h e r e is n o change in the affinity of the receptor for insulin during the lactation, while although the n u m b e r of receptors is increased during pregnancy, the n u m b e r s return to the level found in non-lactating animals either before (sheep) or a r o u n d (rats) parturition.
T h e soporific effect of elevated arterial tryptophan concentrations (converted to 5 H T in brain cells: see Gibney, 1987) is a cautionary reminder of the effects which might c o m e into play! T h e r e is doubtless a state in the development of any scientific field when the multiplicity of separate observations inspires the construction of a general, simplifying theory. ' Τ. Β. Mepham 29 Acknowledgements T h e author thanks D r s J . I . Overthrow and C. G. Prosser for helpful c o m m e n t s in discussion of this chapter.