By Amitava Rakshit, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, Avijit Sen
This e-book addresses intimately multifaceted ways to boosting nutrient use potency (NUE) which are changed by means of plant interactions with environmental variables and mix physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic points. Conveying an in-depth figuring out of the subject will spark the advance of latest cultivars and traces to urge NUE, coupled with top administration practices that may immensely profit agricultural structures, safeguarding their soil, water, and air caliber. Written through well-known specialists within the box, the e-book is meant to supply scholars, scientists and policymakers with crucial insights into holistic ways to NUE, in addition to an outline of a few winning case experiences. within the current figuring out of agriculture, NUE represents a query of strategy optimization in line with the expanding fragility of our common assets base and threats to nutrition grain defense around the globe. extra enhancing nutrient use potency is a prerequisite to decreasing creation expenses, increasing crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient assets, and combating environmental infection. The meals most ordinarily restricting plant progress are N, P, ok, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE will depend on the facility to successfully take in the nutrient from the soil, but additionally on shipping, garage, mobilization, utilization in the plant and the surroundings. a couple of methods may help us to appreciate NUE as an entire. One comprises adopting most sensible crop administration practices that take note of root-induced rhizosphere methods, which play a pivotal function in controlling nutrient dynamics within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New applied sciences, from uncomplicated instruments like leaf colour charts to stylish sensor-based structures and laser land leveling, can lessen the dependency on laboratory counsel and handbook hard work. one other technique issues the advance of crop vegetation via genetic manipulations that let them to soak up and assimilate nutrition extra successfully, in addition to settling on tactics of plant responses to nutrient deficiency tension and exploring ordinary genetic version. although just recently brought, the power of microbial inoculants to urge NUE is gaining in value, because the loss, immobilization, free up and availability of meals are mediated by way of soil microbial processes.
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Additional resources for Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances
Precision farming technologies have introduced, and now commercialized, on-the-go N sensors that can be coupled with variable rate fertilizer applicators to automatically correct crop N deﬁciencies on a site-speciﬁc basis. Another approach to synchronize release of N from fertilizers with crop need is the use of N stabilizers and controlled-release fertilizers. , nitrapyrin, DCD [dicyandiamide], NBPT [n-butyl-thiophosphorictriamide]) inhibit nitriﬁcation or urease activity, thereby slowing the conversion of the fertilizer to nitrate (Havlin et al.
Applied at planting, nutrients can be banded with the seed, below the seed, or below and to the side of the seed. After planting, application is usually restricted to N and placement can be as a topdress or a subsurface sidedress. In general, nutrient recovery efﬁciency tends to be higher with banded applications because less contact with the soil lessens the opportunity for nutrient loss due to leaching or ﬁxation reactions. Placement decisions depend on the crop and soil conditions, which interact to inﬂuence nutrient uptake and availability.
Mishra Abstract Public interest and awareness of the need for improving nutrient use efﬁciency is great, but nutrient use efﬁciency is easily misunderstood. Four indices of nutrient use efﬁciency are reviewed, and an example of different applications of the terminology shows that the same data set might be used to calculate a fertilizer N efﬁciency of 21 or 100 %. Fertilizer N recovery efﬁciencies from researcher-managed experiments for major grain crops range from 46 to 65 %, compared to on-farm N recovery efﬁciencies of 20–40 %.