By Hajime Akimoto, Yoshinari Anoda, Kazuyuki Takase, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Hidesada Tamai (auth.)
This quantity presents basics of nuclear thermal–hydraulics for reactor layout and safeguard evaluate. It additionally describes the root for assessing cooling functionality of nuclear reactors less than unintended stipulations. The descriptions during this publication are nearly self-contained, past the idea that readers are acquainted with the introductory degrees of nuclear engineering. This ebook is helping readers comprehend the procedures for nuclear reactor plant layout and crucial components in nuclear thermal-hydraulics.
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Extra resources for Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics
48) is obtained. dh ¼ du þ pdv þ vdp ð1:48Þ Here, since dp ¼ 0 when the pressure is constant, therefore, by comparing with Eq. 43), the quantity of heat under the condition of constant pressure is dq ¼ du þ pdv ¼ dh ð1:49Þ Since cp ¼ ð∂q=∂T Þp from the definition of specific heat at constant pressure, Eq. 50) can be obtained from Eq. 49). 14 1 The First Law of Thermodynamics cp ¼ ∂h ∂T ð1:50Þ p By Eq. 50) it is obvious that the specific heat at constant pressure is equal to the change of enthalpy per unit temperature.
5 Entropy 45 ηc ¼ 1 À Q2 T2 ¼1À Q1 T1 ð3:19Þ ηc is calculated with T1 and T2 and it is large when T1 is high and T2 is low. In the reverse Carnot cycle such as a refrigerating machine and a heat pump system, the coefficient of performance of the refrigerating machine εr and that of the heat pump system εh are calculated as Eqs. 21). 5 εr ¼ Q2 T2 ¼ Q1 À Q2 T 1 À T 2 ð3:20Þ εh ¼ Q2 T1 ¼ Q1 À Q2 T 1 À T 2 ð3:21Þ Entropy If a system changes reversibly, there is a relation between the heat Q and the temperature T shown as Eq.
44 3 Second Law of Thermodynamics p2 V 2κ ¼ p3 V 3κ ð3:10Þ W 23 ¼ mcv ðT 1 À T 2 Þ ð3:11Þ 3. Isothermal compression (state 3 to state 4) The system discharges heat Q2 to the low-grade heat source, for which the temperature is T2, and it changes from state 3 to state 4 ( p4,V4) with the temperature fixed at T2. Work W34 is done to the inside. p3 V 3 ¼ p4 V 4 ¼ mRT 2 V3 Q2 ¼ ÀW 34 ¼ mRT 2 ln V4 ð3:12Þ ð3:13Þ 4. Adiabatic compression (state 4 to state 1) The system separates from the low-grade heat source at state 4.