By N. I. Shumkov (auth.), L. G. LeSage, A. A. Sarkisov (eds.)
The complex study Workshop on "Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and similar difficulties" was once held on the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia on June 19-22, 1995. On June 17 and 18, 1995 a few of the workshop contributors visited the Zwezdochka Shipyard at Severodvinsk that is a fix and dismantlement facility for Russian nuclear submarines. Attendance on the workshop was once nearly a hundred and fifteen with contributors from Russia, usa, France, Norway, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, and Germany. The workshop was once backed through the Disarmament Panel of North Atlantic Treaty association (NATO) technology Committee. The sponsorship and the monetary aid of NATO is gratefully stated. The workshop was once equipped in Russia by means of the Nuclear safeguard Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The efforts of lots of individuals from IBRAE in generating either a technically hard workshop and a nearly perfect one also are gratefully said. additionally, the aid of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the country Committee of the Russian Federation on protection applied sciences, the Ministry of the Russian Federation on Atomic power, the army of the Russian Federation, and the us division of power is said. xi present prestige OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DECOMMISSIONING difficulties OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DECOMMISSIONING AND RECYCLING N. I. SHUMKOV country Committee for cover (Goseomoboronprom) Moscow, Russia 1. common Description of the matter absolutely, the matter of nuclear submarine decommissioning and recycling has been being concerned Russian civil and armed forces experts fascinated about improvement, development and operation of submarines for plenty of years.
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Extra resources for Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems
Without a solution of this problem the process of nuclear submarine recycling cannot be completed. This is due to potential risk to the environment due to NSs in the state of "decay storage" (temporary waterborne storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and cut-out reactor compartments, which are SNF-free, but contain high-level equipment and materials. There exist various versions of concepts for handling reactor compartments of nuclear submarines being recycled, but eventually all of them can be reduced to the following two alternatives (see Table 1): I.
L. The concept takes into account the afore-mentioned factors and is based on the general strategy formulated in IAEA recommendations and including, as applied to nuclear submarines, three stages of the decommissioning process (see Table 3): 1. Inactivation of the nuclear submarines (SNF unloading) and preparation of reactor compartments for extended storage. 2. Extended storage of the RCs. 3. Recycling of equipment and materials from the RCs and radioactive waste burial. During the first stage, nuclear fuel must be unloaded, which removes completely the question of a nuclear hazard and reduces by an order of magnitude the radioactivity level in the RC.
All these circumstances have had to be thoroughly analyzed and taken into account in the course of evolving the concept of handling reactor compartments of this kind. The condition of some off-normal Res and the radiation situation inside them permit reactor inactivation under certain conditions. Then the procedure of handling such RCs may be practically the same as in the case of normal RCs, though it requires specific elaboration. The process of handling inactivated off--normal RCs includes creation of additional ecological barriers both inside and outside the Res.