By Sarah-Jane Mathieu
North of the colour Line examines lifestyles in Canada for the predicted 5,000 blacks, either African american citizens and West Indians, who immigrated to Canada after the tip of Reconstruction within the usa. throughout the studies of black railway staff and their union, the Order of slumbering motor vehicle Porters, Sarah-Jane Mathieu connects social, political, exertions, immigration, and black diaspora background through the Jim Crow era.By international battle I, slumbering automobile portering had turn into the particular province of black males. White railwaymen protested the presence of the black employees and insisted on a segregated group. utilizing the firsthand bills of former sound asleep vehicle porters, Mathieu exhibits that porters frequently stumbled on themselves best racial uplift corporations, galvanizing their groups, and changing into the bedrock of civil rights activism.Examining the unfold of segregation legislation and practices in Canada, whose electorate frequently imagined themselves as with out racism, Mathieu historicizes Canada's racial heritage, and explores how black migrants introduced their very own sensibilities approximately race to Canada, engaging in and altering political discourse there.
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Additional info for North of the Color Line: Migration and Black Resistance in Canada, 1870-1955 (John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture)
Mitchell, Sneed, and other men spearheading this calculated southern African American emigration understood its long-term impact on the South. ’’ The Oklahoma newsman ominously informed readers that African Americans willingly ‘‘sold all their property in this state, intending to homestead quarter section claims in Canada. Many . . ’’ππ Unnerved by that possibility, the Calgary Herald charged that ‘‘ ‘Old Daddy Snaid’ . . π∫ African American immigrants from Oklahoma and other parts of the South saw Canada’s homesteading program as a new chance at Reconstruction politics and exported that vision with them when they came to the dominion.
Chapter 1 charts the newly formed Department of Immi- Introduction 19 gration’s response to black migrants who sought refuge in Canada in the wake of Reconstruction’s collapse. Elected statesmen and federal bureaucrats increasingly adopted surreptitious measures to keep Canada ‘‘for the white race only,’’ with the goal of e√ectively banning black immigration completely. I demonstrate that the arrival of African Americans—but very speciﬁcally black southerners—forced Canadians to come to terms with their own negrophobia, which they quickly and deliberately framed into law, making Jim Crow a national federal legal practice before World War I.
Canada’s western homesteading program enticed African Americans to head north, as did its legacy as a haven for freedom seekers prior to the Civil War. But if during the 1850s Canada had ushered in African Americans on the run from slavery, by the turn of the century most white Canadians strove for an impenetrable border. ’’∞∂ William D. ’’ According to the Canadian Department of Immigration and white nativists, crime, miscegenation, and lynch law accounted for much of Uncle Sam’s problems.