By Alan Rogers
This is the 1st complete examine of non-formal schooling on a world scale because the Nineteen Eighties. The ebook describes the emergence of the concept that within the context of improvement and academic reform. It strains the controversy approximately non-formal schooling from its origins in 1968 to the mid Eighties, and appears on the concerns that this debate raised. It then describes a few programmes in numerous elements of the realm which name themselves ‘non-formal’, declaring the wide variety of other perspectives approximately what's and what's now not non-formal. Rogers asks even if we must always drop the time period altogether or try and reconceptualise it when it comes to versatile education or participatory education.
This is a vital new e-book by means of a well-established writer. It bargains with advanced concerns, yet is written in a transparent type. It comprises an incredible new research of the advance paradigms within which the controversies surrounding non-formal schooling grew up, and which formed its objective and affects. The author’s demand a reformulation of the concept that will locate echoes not just in constructing societies, but in addition in Western circles, the place the language of non-formal schooling is getting used more and more in the context of lifelong studying. The e-book grew out of the instructing of non-formal schooling during which Professor Rogers has been engaged for the final two decades. it really is meant for lecturers and scholars in comparative schooling classes in larger schooling associations, and for researchers and others with an curiosity within the field.
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Additional info for Non-Formal Education: Flexible Schooling or Participatory Education?
It is unlikely that a uniform approach to education will emerge from such contrasting contexts. The concept of non-formal education emerged from all this criticism as a potential saviour of formal education. The role that NFE was called upon to fulfil was initially to provide new kinds of inputs to meet the detected deficiencies of formal education. The nature of NFE thus came to depend on how the problem was constructed. COMPLAINTS A B O U T E D U C A T I O N : Redeemable Education Many educational aid agencies felt that there were huge problems with education as they experienced it in developing countries, but that these could be remedied.
At first, this was constructed in deficit terms, leading to extra training for those identified and constructed as ' dyslexics'. The dyslexics needed to change to fit in with existing society norms. Then dyslexia was constructed in terms of exclusion; those who were identified as 'having dyslexia' were constructed as disadvantaged. g. extra time for examinations). g. being very tall or short) which can cause problems or issues in certain circumstances. The dyslexic is no longer constructed as a dyslexic; there is more to them than their dyslexia.
On the one hand, there was growing dissatisfaction among Western aid agencies with education in developing societies, especially sub-Saharan Africa. It was suggested that large sums of money had been spent in many former colonial states on educational systems, especially during the early stages after Independence, but without discernible improvement. Indeed, in some respects, there would even seem to have been a backward movement from the colonial days, as an increasing number of countries were unable to meet the growing pressure for Western types of schooling from $n most cases) expanding target groups, especially rural populations where both the population and the demand for schooling were growing fast.