Né en 1928 aux Etats-Unis, Noam Chomsky est probablement l'intellectuel contemporain à los angeles fois le plus célèbre dans le monde et le moins connu en France. Si ses travaux fondateurs en linguistique - il est le père de los angeles «linguistique générative» - sont reconnus, ce n'est pas le cas de son travail d'analyse et d'information politique, pourtant considérable : Chomsky est trop inclassable, trop unique pour faire partie d'une «école», ce que le monde intellectuel français ne lui a jamais pardonné. Cet ouvrage, qui reprend le meilleur du Cahier de L'Herne paru en 2007 sous los angeles course de Jean Bricmont et de Julie Franck, présente une imaginative and prescient d'ensemble de los angeles pensée de Chomsky et rend hommage à l'importance de son oeuvre dans des domaines variés : linguistique théorique, philosophie de l'esprit, neurosciences cognitives, examine de l'idéologie et du pouvoir, liberté d'expression, éthique, motion politique...
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Extra resources for Noam Chomsky : Les cahiers de l'Herne n°88
After Butler’s refutation there would still be reasonable defences of psychological egoism (see Slote 1964), but the starting point of these defences would always be a reply to Butler. After Butler, just as after Socrates, things could never be quite the same again. What I shall describe as ‘Butler’s refutation’ is not an entirely accurate historical description of Butler’s views. Instead I use that phrase to describe an argument that begins with Butler (1726) but which has been refined and revised by a number of philosophers such as Broad (1930, 1949–50) and Feinberg (1975).
As with Socrates’ two arguments, Butler’s argument is not the last word on the subject addressed, but it is certainly the first word. Each of these three set piece arguments has the result of turning the tables on a certain rather glib philosophical view, putting it on the defensive. After Butler’s refutation there would still be reasonable defences of psychological egoism (see Slote 1964), but the starting point of these defences would always be a reply to Butler. After Butler, just as after Socrates, things could never be quite the same again.
This somewhat more impartial view is sometimes called ‘impersonal ethical egoism’. ’ Or of the corporation? Or of the proletariat? Or, finally, is the teleologist saying ‘An act is morally right if it maximizes the welfare of everyone’? In the latter case the person would be a universal teleologist. One leading kind of universal teleologist is the utilitarian. The most typical kind of utilitarian identifies well-being (‘utility’) with something like happiness or pleasure. g. J. S. C. Smart). Utilitarians hold that an act is morally right because it produces the greatest balance of happiness (or welfare) for society as a whole (compared with all its alternatives).