By W. John Richardson, Charles I. Malme, Denis H. Thomson, Charles R. Greene
Discusses how good marine animals listen, how noisy the oceans became, and what results those new sounds have on marine mammals.
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Extra info for Marine Mammals and Noise
Bottom-anchored, drifting (D'Spain et al. 1991), or specialized noisecanceling hydrophones may be needed for this application. Noise interference from nearby equipment or vessels is a common problem. Because of the efficient propagation of sound in the sea, even a distant noise source can interfere with attempts to measure "natural" ambient noise or other weak sources. When the hydrophone is deployed from a boat, it is usually essential to turn off boat motors. Even then, noise from generators or other auxiliary equipment aboard, or wave slap against the side of the boat, may be a problem.
Acoustic data can also be digitized and transferred, in real time, into computer memory or onto computer disks. As memory and disk capacities increase, this approach will no doubt become more common. 4 Amplification Even with a built-in preamplifier, hydrophone signals usually require more amplification before they can be recorded. Preamplifiers are designed mainly as impedance-transforming devices to better drive the cable and minimize electronic noise. A postamplifier with selectable gain is desirable to maximize the signal match to the tape recorder.
2. Comparison of spectral density levels, Va-octave band levels, and 1-octave band levels for example of Twin Otter aircraft sound. Spectral density levels represent the sound power in each 1-Hz band, and hence are lower than %octave levels, which represent sound power in bands whose widths are 23% of the center frequency. Similarly, 1-octave band levels are higher than l/3-octave levels, 1 because an octave band is three times as wide as a /3-octave band at the same cen1 ter frequency. 1 Temporal Properties A sound may be transient, of relatively short duration having an obvious start and end, or it may be continuous, seeming to go on and on.