By William G. Roy
This ebook exhibits how the social structures of time, house, race, gender and sophistication intersect with one another to supply specific social phenomena which are enduring and demanding for our society. best the reader via examples drawn from around the globe, the writer indicates how those different types are social structures; traditionally shaped, ideologically loaded, and topic to alter.
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Extra info for Making Societies: The Historical Construction of Our World
The hamburger chain manager tells the employee exactly how to grill the hamburger, how much special sauce to apply, how long to heat the bun, and what to say to a rude customer. The relationship is hierarchical, even if the employee does not feel especially oppressed. People who sell their labor power—whether fast-food cook or corporate lawyer—are exchanging a certain amount of freedom for money, forget ting that they are submitting to domination because they think of it as selling time. Though corporate lawyers get hundreds of times more money than fast-food cooks, they are both in an analogous social rela tionship.
When humans first arose as a species, they probably did not have a regular interval of days like our week. They probably hunted and gathered when they needed to and probably had religious ceremonies on an irregular or seasonal basis. Since they did not know how to count, they probably felt no need for exact rhythms among daily activities. When they started to grow food rather than hunt and gather, it is likely that some people traded extra grain for objects that other people possessed. They may have found that it was easier if they knew in advance when everyone would come together to trade.
Yes, they said, there is too little time and too much to do. Why can't we have 30 hours a day and 10 days a week? But a moment's thought revealed the folly of that. They readily conceded that even with 30 hours a day and 10 days a week, the demands would quickly fill the time. Yet they persisted in thinking that the source of the problem is "time," not the social relations that put demands on them. In most cultures for most of human history, pressure to get things done has not been conceptualized in terms of time.