By O. Richmond
This research explores 3 generations of ways to finishing clash and examines how, within the context of the issues of the Westphalian overseas approach, their peacekeeping, mediation and negotiation, clash answer and peacebuilding methods in addition to UN peace operations, and asks through an empirical and theoretical research, what function such methods have performed and are taking part in in replicating a global procedure liable to intractable sorts of clash.
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Extra info for Maintaining Order, Making Peace
Intractability does not therefore just imply that a conflict cannot be solved because of the inflexibility of the disputants; there are several levels behind this. The basic levels must be related to core issues of individual, group and state rights, primarily relating to status, legitimacy, strategic and economic security for identity groups. Because, as has been shown above, the international system in its various states throughout recent history has claimed to form the basis for all human interaction, it is here that one must look for the roots of intractability.
At least at the level of rhetoric, human security competes with state Order, Security and Conflict 29 security in the constitution of order. Yet this has underlined the vast difficulties of constructing an order, via forms of intervention and tools for ending conflict, which reflect local, regional and global sensitivities. The subsequent critique of statecentricity, and the rise of transnational actors, has been an important part of this development. Generally speaking, however, this discourse has been a neo-liberal discourse in which `should' statements were made about conflict, but according to predominantly western `universal' norms by powerful actors and their coalitions.
Much of the theory of conflict resolution developed in response to symmetric conflicts: now asymmetric conflicts are dominant. International wars have typically been Clausewitzean affairs, fought out by power centres which use organized force directed against enemy forces in order to break the opponent's will to continue. 40 In the contemporary environment, and as reflected in the utterances of governments,41 social movements and NGOs, normative issues have raised their heads: discussions about justice and humanitarianism are beginning to contribute to policy-making; and the notion of `ethical regimes',42 `good international citizenship' and ethical dimensions to foreign policy43 have buttressed (and exploited) the case for the 28 Maintaining Order, Making Peace development of a just international society, most notably proposed via cosmopolitanism.