By Graham C. Kearn
Many other kinds of animals have followed a parasitic lifestyle at the dermis and gills of marine and freshwater fishes, together with protozoans, flatworms, leeches, more than a few crustaceans or even a few vertebrates (lampreys). there's a parasitic barnacle, defined first within the nineteenth century by way of Charles Darwin, fish lice that vary intercourse and bivalve molluscs parasitic purely whilst younger. This publication explores for the 1st time in a single quantity, the impressive biology of those little identified and often strange animals.
The following heavily interwoven issues are thought of for every team of parasites: how they locate their hosts, how they connect, feed and reproduce, the wear and tear they inflict and the way the host’s immune procedure retaliates. in keeping with the British fauna, yet extending the place acceptable to examples from North the US, Australia and in other places, the ebook is key analyzing, not only for the pro parasitologist, but in addition for somebody drawn to fishes and during this missed box of British average background.
With the enquiring naturalist in brain, phrases and ideas are defined as they come up, sponsored up through a word list, and the textual content is liberally illustrated. An introductory bankruptcy on fish biology units the scene and customary fish names are used all through, in addition to clinical names.
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Additional resources for Leeches, Lice and Lampreys: A Natural History of Skin and Gill Parasites of Fishes
Fig. 8. Diagram showing the main anatomical features of the theront of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. cc, Caudal cilium; cil, cilium; cv, Contractile vacuole; cy, cytostome; mch, mitochondrion; mcy, mucocyst; mi, micronucleus; mn, macronucleus; org, organelle of Lieberkühn; pc, prebuccal cavity; pf, perforatorium. Scale bar: 10 µm. Modified from Matthews, 1994. According to Matthews (1994), the theront swims continuously, spinning anticlockwise on its longitudinal axis, the trailing cilium perhaps serving to maintain directional stability.
Within five minutes the theront has completed its penetration and initial migration within the gill epithelium, often stopping close to the cartilage supporting the primary gill lamella. The parasite does not breach the basement membrane and enter the dermis. Debris released from the disrupted host cells is ‘mopped up’ during the next 35 minutes or so by ingestion via the cytostome, leading to the formation in the cytoplasm of the young feeding stage or trophont of many debris-containing vesicles (food vacuoles) in which the host material is digested.
The life cycle of the monogenean Entobdella soleae. The adult parasite (A) inhabits the lower surface of the common sole (Solea solea). Tetrahedral eggs attached to sand ballast on the sea-bed (B) liberate free-swimming ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia) (C), which typically invade the upper surface of the sole and migrate to the host’s lower surface. Modified from Kearn, 1986a. Although each egg has a long stalk bearing adhesive droplets like a row of beads, this glue will not stick to sole skin and freshly laid eggs of the parasite leave the host.