By Cliff Roberson
An outline of teenybopper JusticeJuvenile Justice DefinedJuvenile courtroom AuthorityMeasuring DelinquencySerious Violent Crimes by way of JuvenilesNonviolent CrimesJuvenile Justice OrganizationsJudicial WaiverDevelopment of minor CourtsChildhoodparens patriaeEarly LawsDevelopment of youth Courts within the United StatesJuvenile Justice and the superb CourtPunish or ReformDelinquency Causation TheoriesBasic Assumptions of antisocial BehaviorExplaining Juvenile DelinquencyClassical SchoolPositivist SchoolSocial TheoriesSocial keep an eye on TheoriesCultural Deviance TheoriesSubculturalSocial Disorganization The. Read more...
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Additional resources for Juvenile Justice : Theory and Practice
In 2008, there were an estimated 324,100 juvenile arrests for larceny-theft. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of such arrests fell by 17%. • Of the four offenses that make up the Violent Crime Index, only juvenile arrests for robbery increased in 2007 and 2008 (up 2%). • In 2008, females accounted for 17% of juvenile Violent Crime Index arrests, 36% of juvenile Property Crime Index arrests, and 44% of juvenile larceny-theft arrests. • Youth younger than age 15 accounted for more than onefourth of all juvenile arrests for Violent Crime Index offenses and Property Crime Index offenses in 2008 (27% and 29%, respectively).
There was not a state of indifference toward youth. From a historical setting, it is easy to explain the absence of a separate status for juveniles until the late 19th century. The failure to develop a personal, caring attitude toward youth could be viewed as a defense mechanism for those families because the infant mortality rate exceeded 50% and each child represented a burden on the family. Families generally lived from day to day on what they could hunt, make, or produce. In many instances the inability to provide economically for new children lead to infanticide (killing of infants) or the abandonment of unwanted children.
The family portion of the code was based on the patriarchal system whereby the father was the head of the family unit. Rebellion against the father by the children, even adult children, was not tolerated. The code provided for the adoption of children. Children who were adopted were expected to be loyal to their adoptive parents as payment development of juvenile courts 25 in return for their new homes. The adoptive parents had the right to cut off their child’s tongue or have his eye plucked out if the child was disloyal to his new parents.