By Robert T Marshall; H Douglas Goff; Richard W Hartel
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Additional info for Ice cream
Water is the solvent for the continuous phase. In frozen ice cream, it is present both as a liquid and a solid, as it will not completely freeze due to the effect of the added solutes on freezing point depression. The solid: liquid ratio, as dictated by solute concentration and temperature, greatly affects the firmness of the ice cream. Water in the ice cream mix comes from fluid dairy products and syrups or from added water. The air is dispersed through the fat-in-serum emulsion. The interface between the water and air is stabilized by a thin film of unfrozen material, comprised of protein and emulsifier, and by partially churned fat globules (see further details in section "Fat Destabilization and Foam Formation").
1. , 2000, for further details). , before hardening or during melting). With respect to protein contribution to fat globule integrity, it is obvious from the studies to date that a weak surface layer is most desirable (Goff, 2002). Segall and Goff (1999) examined the susceptibility of ice cream emulsions to partial coalescence during shear when the emulsion was prepared with varying concentrations and types of protein, while retaining sufficient emulsion stability to prevent separation offat during storage of the mix (creaming).
Emulsion stability of a paraffin oil-in-water emulsion was reduced by six orders of magnitude when crystals were present in the dispersed phase (van Boekel and Walstra, 1981). This has been attributed to the protrusion of crystals into the aqueous phase causing a surface distortion of the globule.