By Gregory Rolina
This ebook discusses the specifics of protection laws relating to nuclear danger and the way specialists give a contribution to the protection of nuclear installations. Drawing on learn performed in collaboration with the French Institute for Radiological safety and Nuclear safeguard (IRSN), the tips which are recommend depend on a overview of the practices of experts in human and organizational components touching on nuclear security. the writer exhibits that the French technique relies on keeping a technical discussion among the regulatory authority (ASN), IRSN and nuclear operators. this technique of chance administration is called "French cooking" within the Anglo-Saxon international, the place a extra formal regulatory process is taken. This technical discussion does despite the fact that carry sure advantages, really within the box of human and organizational components, the place it permits an development of the nation of information, which is still incomplete. After the Fukushima twist of fate, within the face of an ongoing ecu and international re-examination of the security of nuclear strength and alignment in the direction of the Anglo-Saxon ordinary, the French cooking procedure might but be ready to make an important contribution. This paintings can be of curiosity to all focused on nuclear energy engineering and within the box of danger administration and nuclear safety.
Includes a preface by way of Jacques Repussard, Director basic, IRSN, France, and a postface via Erik Hollnagel, Professor, Institute of neighborhood overall healthiness examine, college of Southern Denmark / leader advisor, Centre for caliber, area of Southern Denmark.
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Extra info for Human and Organizational Factors in Nuclear Safety: The French Approach to Safety Assessments
When EDF built its first reactor, EDF 1, which was put into service in 1963, no department or agency at the time was able to organize the safety of facilities. ”58 Maximum credible accident analysis The second American practice mentioned by Jean Bourgeois is the “maximum credible accident” analysis. The concept of MCA had been introduced by Clifford Beck, an expert with the AEC, in particular as an attempt to streamline the decision process related to the siting of future nuclear facilities. The following words, taken from a speech by Beck, properly set into context the major issue raised by facility safety: “If worst conceivable accidents are considered, no site except one removed from populated areas by hundreds of miles would offer sufficient protection.
In actual fact, people did not really pose a problem insofar as the engineers were convinced that the technology was safe provided all the automatic controls were left to do their job. … More than just people, the entire process of operating a facility took a back seat to design. ”98 This situation was not specific to France. The sociologist Charles Perrow has stressed the fact that nuclear power stations in the United States were designed based solely on engineers’ performance criteria without notice of the lessons taught by human factors studies, which attempted to include the conditions under which hardware was used by operators.
74. , p. 143. , Ed. (1997). Du mode d’existence des outils de gestion. Paris, Seli-Arlsan. 73 Taken from a speech by Farmer at the April 1967 IAEA Symposium in Vienna, cited by Foasso, 2003, pp. 230–231. 74 Taken from an article by F. de Vathaire “La sûreté des réacteurs: réalisations et tendances actuelles”, Energie nucléaire, vol. no. 7, pp. 421–427, cited by Foasso, 2003, p. 240. I. Technical Dialogue and Human Factors 31 cooking”75, that regulated relations between the two parties. In such a system, characterized by the limited role of regulations, adopting a decision-making tool that would cut back on reality too drastically was not necessary.