By John Richardson D. Phil
Howard Andrew Knox (1885-1949) served as assistant health care provider at Ellis Island throughout the 1910s, administering various verbal and nonverbal assessments to figure out the psychological skill of power immigrants. An early proponent of nonverbal intelligence checking out (largely by using formboards and imagine puzzles), Knox constructed an evaluative technique that this present day informs the options of practitioners and researchers. no matter if tailored to degree intelligence and function in childrens, army recruits, neurological and psychiatric sufferers, or the common task applicant, Knox's pioneering equipment are a part of modern mental perform and deserve in-depth investigation.
Completing the 1st biography of this unjustly neglected determine, John T. E. Richardson, former president of the foreign Society for the heritage of the Neurosciences, takes inventory of Knox's realizing of intelligence and his legacy past Ellis Island. Consulting released and unpublished assets, Richardson establishes a chronology of Knox's existence, together with info of his scientific education and his time as a doctor for the U.S. military. He describes the stipulations that gave upward push to intelligence checking out, together with the public's predicament that the USA used to be starting its doorways to the mentally not worthy. He then recounts the advance of intelligence checks through Knox and his colleagues and the widely-discussed e-book in their examine. Their paintings provides an invaluable and very human portrait of mental trying out and its limits, really the main issue of the folks tested at Ellis Island. Richardson concludes with the improvement of Knox's paintings in later many years and its altering program along with glossy mental thought.
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Additional info for Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island
After all, it is very probable that the word “mental illness” itself will in the future be looked down upon with the same disfavor as “insanity” is at present. (Grob 1966:xiii) Similarly, I will use such terms as mental defectiveness, mental deficiency, mental retardation, idiots, imbeciles, and the feebleminded, because these were the terms used both by professionals and the general public at the time in question. The terms mental defectiveness, mental deficiency, and mental retardation appear to have come into widespread usage toward the end of the nineteenth century.
Her primary condition was enlargement of the inguinal glands (lymph nodes on either side of the abdomen), but Knox found that she also had a mild form of filariasis, an infectious parasitic disease that is common in tropical and subtropical regions. The girl made a prompt recovery after removal of her inguinal glands. Knox wrote up a brief report of this case that appeared in a medical journal the following June, his first publication. He concluded that the girl had probably contracted filariasis through a mosquito bite while she had been living in Florida (Knox 1911).
This response satisfied the judge advocate general in the War Department that no action should be taken against Knox, and his wife’s attorney was advised that this was not a matter in which the War Department could interfere. Nevertheless, the correspondence remained in his file and may well have influenced the course of his subsequent career with the army. AT F O RT H A N C O C K Fort Hancock was a primary coastal defense on the Sandy Hook peninsula on the south side of Lower New York Bay. It was first established in 1898, although the site had been used for military purposes since 1812 (Roberts 1988:516–18).