By George Lipsitz
How racism shapes city areas and the way African american citizens create vivid groups that supply types for extra equitable social arrangements
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Extra info for How Racism Takes Place
Yet as the drug example shows, segregation does not prevent crime, but rather concentrates and exacerbates it. 32 Failure to enforce fair-housing laws between 1970 and 1995 made the number of census tracts with a population that was at least 40 percent poor increase from 1,500 to more than 3,400. 33 Segregation and poverty produce what Craig Haney calls “criminogenic” conditions. 34 Chronic poverty creates family disruption and personal distress along with constant frustration and humiliation. Authorities also treat ghetto residents in ways that promote nonnormative behaviors and attitudes.
B. Du Bois argued so effectively in his classic book Black Reconstruction in America, it hurt the nation as a whole by demolishing the democratic institutions and practices that Black people played a central role in creating. 55 In our time, the actions of the Supreme Court in protecting the white spatial imaginary in school desegregation cases since the 1970s offers an exemplary model of exactly what Blumer feared. Shifts in principles and positions that otherwise contain no consistency or logic at all become legible and understandable when seen as protection of white space.
30 The resulting health crises devastate the social and emotional ecosystems of neighborhoods and families, leading to enormous social costs for all. Condemning whiteness is not the same as condemning white people. Whiteness is a structured advantage subsidized by segregation. It is not so much a color as a condition. Yet because whiteness rarely speaks its names or admits to its advantages, it requires the construction of a devalued and even demonized Blackness to be credible and legitimate. Although the white spatial imaginary originates mainly in appeals to the financial interests of whites rather than to simple fears of otherness, over time it produces a fearful relationship to the specter of Blackness.