By Lorenzo Fioramonti
No matter if we love it or no longer, numbers run our lives. on a daily basis, our intake styles, academic offerings or even sexual personal tastes are translated into information. complete countries' economies depend upon scores formulated through deepest corporations.
These numbers, figures and information are strong simply because they're appeared to be an target illustration of truth. yet is that this relatively so? during this eye-opening booklet, Lorenzo Fioramonti argues that, opposite to what many think, numbers are constructs that may be simply manipulated to serve the pursuits of political elites and proponents of industry fundamentalism.
Drawing on a large choice of case reports - from credit standing organisations to carbon buying and selling, weather switch to improvement spending - Fioramonti offers a much-needed critique of the present 'data fever', exhibiting either the direct outcomes and oblique implications of the expanding strength of numbers. while, it investigates cutting edge makes an attempt to withstand the invasion of mainstream facts by way of offering replacement measurements or rejecting quantification altogether. An cutting edge and well timed exposé of the politics, energy and contestation of numbers in daily life.
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Additional resources for How Numbers Rule the World: The Use and Abuse of Statistics in Global Politics
That means that there exists a subsequence of π, say cadb, that forms the pattern 3142 and that is not a part of an occurrence of the pattern 41352. Among all such subsequences, we can choose one having the minimum number of letters, say k, between a and d. 5: the white rectangle in the middle of the matrix indicates that no letter between a and d has value between b and c. Now, if k = 0 then cadb is actually an occurrence of 3142 and we are done. However, if k > 0 then we can consider the letter x next to the right of a: if x > c then caxb is an occurrence of 3142; if x < c then cxdb is an occurrence of the pattern 3142 having k − 1 letters between x and d.
1, and some consecutive elements in the top row can be overlined. We have the following conditions on the bottom and top lines of τ : • If the bottom line of τ contains τi τi+1 · · · τj then the letters corresponding to τi , τi+1 , . , τj in an occurrence of τ in a permutation must be adjacent, whereas there is no adjacency condition for non-underlined consecutive letters. Moreover, if the bottom row of τ begins with τ1 then any occurrence of τ in a permutation σ must begin with the leftmost letter of σ, and if the bottom row of τ ends with τk then any occurrence of τ in σ must end with the rightmost letter of σ.
The pattern 1221 occurs twice in the word 143253154: as subsequence 1331 (namely, 143253154) and as subsequence 4554 (namely, 143253154). 2. Below we present examples of occurrences of vincular patterns in words. • The pattern 312 occurs three times in the word 4425143 (namely, 4425143, 4425143, and 4425143) as the first and the second letters in an occurrence of the pattern must be adjacent. • The pattern 312 occurs twice in the word 4425143 (namely, 4425143 and 4425143) as any occurrence of the pattern must begin with the leftmost letter and end with the rightmost letter of the word.