By Thomas J. Wilbanks (auth.), Stanley D. Brunn, Susan L. Cutter, J. W. Harrington Jr. (eds.)
It is very acceptable that the AAG's Centennial social gathering should still instructed the e-book of a quantity dedicated to Geography and expertise. New applied sciences have consistently been vital in advancing geographic realizing, yet by no means have they been so completely and swiftly transformative of the self-discipline as at this degree in geography's evolution. simply as new applied sciences have profoundly improved either study percentages and the data base of different disciplines, comparable to biology, physics or drugs, so too are the innovative new geographic applied sciences built prior to now few a long time extending frontiers in geographic study, schooling and purposes. also they are growing new and resurgent roles for geography in either society and within the college. This pattern continues to be accelerating, because the integration of geographic applied sciences, equivalent to the worldwide positioning process and geographic info platforms (GPS/GIS), is developing an explosion of recent "real-time, real-world" purposes and learn services. the ensuing dynamic space/time interactive study and administration environments created by way of interactive GPS/GIS, between different applied sciences, areas geography squarely on the leading edge of complex multidisciplinary learn and modeling courses, and has created center association administration instruments (geographic administration platforms) with the intention to dramatically switch the best way governments and companies paintings within the a long time forward. whereas those and different vital geographic applied sciences, together with distant sensing, location-based companies, etc addressed during this booklet, are forging new possibilities for geography and geographers, additionally they pose challenges.
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Extra resources for Geography and Technology
The relatively leisured pace at which new knowledge was circulated and made widely available to others of necessity meant that change was not rapid. New "facts" were slow to replace the "old"; the rebuttal and counterrebuttal of interpretations took time, and fundamental debates about the nature of a discipline could continue for several years. This was illustrated in the 1950s in the debates over "exceptionalism" and "positivism" as bases for geographical scholarship. The first comments on Schaefer's (1953) critique of the "Hartshornian orthodoxy" appeared in the Annals some nine months after the original (Hartshorne 1954), for example, with longer responses in 1955 and 1958, and a book-length reconsideration in 1959 (Hartshorne 1955, 1958, 1959).
And the ready availability of data about physically observable phenomena and processes makes it easy for researchers to focus on these topics, while in any subject area many of the most important relationships involve variables that are difficult to observe via an earth satellite or an electronic instrument. There is a danger that in this sense technology may tend to shape our research agendas, distorting the balance of attention to different geographic research issues because of differences in the effort required on the part of individual investigators to collect information as a basis for analysis and discourse.
Alongside these largely reactive means of increasing the circulation of ideas were the more active ones, where individuals could join discussions of contemporary issues relating to their research interests. Many such electronic mailing lists were created. Brunn et al. S. The memberships of seven of the lists oriented to geographers ranged from 182 to 1,359, with subscribers from between 9 and 50 countries. Detailed study of one such list, GEOGRAPH, found that it was dominated by university faculty and graduate students who mainly used it to ask and respond to requests for information.