By Meinard Müller
This textbook offers either profound technological wisdom and a entire remedy of crucial themes in tune processing and tune details retrieval. together with a variety of examples, figures, and workouts, this ebook is fitted to scholars, teachers, and researchers operating in audio engineering, machine technological know-how, multimedia, and musicology.
The booklet includes 8 chapters. the 1st disguise foundations of tune representations and the Fourier transform—concepts which are then used during the e-book. within the next chapters, concrete song processing initiatives function a place to begin. every one of those chapters is prepared in a similar way and starts off with a basic description of the track processing state of affairs handy sooner than integrating it right into a wider context. It then discusses—in a mathematically rigorous way—important thoughts and algorithms which are in general appropriate to a variety of research, class, and retrieval difficulties. while, the recommendations are without delay utilized to a particular tune processing activity. by way of blending conception and perform, the book’s aim is to provide distinctive technological insights in addition to a deep knowing of song processing functions. each one bankruptcy ends with a bit that comes with hyperlinks to the learn literature, feedback for additional interpreting, an inventory of references, and routines. The chapters are prepared in a modular model, hence supplying teachers and readers many ways to settle on, rearrange or complement the cloth. therefore, chosen chapters or person sections can simply be built-in into classes on basic multimedia, info technological know-how, sign processing, tune informatics, or the electronic humanities.
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Music Processing: Audio, Analysis, Algorithms, Applications
For example, the frequency of the third harmonic is just 2 cents above the center frequency of G3, which is much smaller than the just noticeable difference. In contrast, the frequency of the 11th harmonic is 49 cents below the center frequency of the note F 5, which is nearly half a semitone and clearly audible. If the harmonics are transposed into the span of one octave (by suitably multiplying or dividing the frequencies by a power of two), they approximate certain notes of the twelve-tone equal-tempered scale.
2 MIDI Representations The next symbolic representation we want to discuss is based on the MIDI standard, which stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Although MIDI was not originally developed to be used as a symbolic music format and imposes many limitations on what can actually be represented, the importance of MIDI is due to its widespread usage over the last three decades, and the abundance of MIDI data freely available on the web. From a music encoding point of view, one needs to keep in mind that the quality of available MIDI data is sometimes questionable.
B) Piano roll. 1 Piano-Roll Representations We start with a symbolic representation having a history of more than one hundred years. 11a), became quite popular with a peak in 1924, before being replaced by phonograph recordings. Player pianos contained pneumatic mechanisms to automatically operate the key and pedal movements according to the instructions speciﬁed by a prestored piano-roll medium. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations (holes) punched into it. 11b). The roll moves over a reading system known as a tracker bar, and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read.