By David Eltis, David Richardson
Considering the fact that 1999, in depth examine efforts have tremendously elevated what's recognized in regards to the background of coerced migration of transatlantic slaves. an incredible database of slave alternate voyages from Columbus’s period to the mid-nineteenth century is now to be had on an open-access site, incorporating newly chanced on details from files round the Atlantic international. The groundbreaking essays during this e-book draw on those new information to discover basic questions on the exchange in African slaves. The learn findings—that the scale of the slave exchange used to be 14 percentage more than have been predicted, that exchange above and less than the equator used to be principally separate, that ports sending out the main slave voyages weren't in Europe yet in Brazil, and more—challenge authorised understandings of transatlantic slavery and recommend a number of new instructions for very important additional research. For the main entire database on slave alternate voyages ever compiled, stopover at www.slavevoyages.org.
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Extra resources for Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
With the breakup of the Iberian union, Spain was shut out of the Portuguese factories on the African coast, and Spanish involvement in the trafﬁc fell. 75 TSTD2 contains records of seventy-one slave vessels sailing to the Spanish Americas between 1650 and 1662—between ﬁve and six ventures a year, bringing in about 1,500 slaves. Just over half were Dutch, but there were thirteen Portuguese and fourteen Spanish, as well as other Swedish and English voyages. In 1663 a new asiento with the Genoese partnership of Grillo and Lomelin provided for the delivery of 3,500 slaves a year, of which less than two-thirds actually arrived.
For the 1642–62 period, we estimate 2,000 slaves a year arriving in the Spanish Americas, or 2,677 leaving Africa, on average, after allowing for shipboard mortality. 76 We have assumed that one-third of the 56,000 were carried in Spanish vessels, except for three years—1651, 1654, and 1656—when TSTD2 shows departures in excess of the annual estimate provided by our procedures. 77 After 1662, direct voyages from Africa to the Spanish Americas became uncommon through to the end of the century, given that Grillo and Lomelin and succeeding asientistas drew on markets within the Americas to meet their asiento commitments—mainly the new Dutch entrepôt at Curaçao.
At the same time that larger western European powers such as England and France broke Spanish control of the Caribbean and established their own plantation complexes complete with slave routes from Africa and sugar production, several Baltic polities attempted a similar strategy with less success. In the half century after 1640, the Duke of Courland (with territories now mainly in Latvia), the Elector of Brandenburg, and the Swedish and Danish crowns tried at various times to ship captives across the Atlantic as part of their colonial ambitions.