By Elisabeth Krimmer, Patricia Anne Simpson
Enlightened struggle investigates the a number of and intricate interactions among battle and Enlightenment idea. even if the Enlightenment is routinely pointed out with the beliefs of development, everlasting peace, cause, and self-determination, Enlightenment discourse spread out in the course of a interval of lengthy ecu war from the Seven Years' battle to the Napoleonic conquest of Europe. The essays during this quantity discover the palpable impact of conflict on eighteenth-century notion and argue for an ideological affinity between conflict, Enlightenment idea, and its legacy. The essays are interdisciplinary, enticing with background, paintings historical past, philosophy, army concept, gender reports, and literature and with historic occasions and cultural contexts from the early Enlightenment via German Classicism and Romanticism. the amount enriches our figuring out of war within the eighteenth century and exhibits how theories and practices of struggle impacted strategies of subjectivity, nationwide identification, gender, and paintings. It additionally sheds gentle at the modern dialogue of the legitimacy of violence via juxtaposing theories of battle, suggestions of revolution, and human rights discourses. individuals: Johannes Birgfeld, David Colclasure, Sara Eigen Figal, Ute Frevert, Wolf Kittler, Elisabeth Krimmer, Waltraud Maierhofer, Arndt Niebisch, Felix Saure, Galili Shahar, Patricia Anne Simpson, Inge Stephan.
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Additional info for Enlightened War: German Theories and Cultures of Warfare from Frederick the Great to Clausewitz (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture)
THE POINT OF RECOGNITION 29 For Frederick, the enemy was a disciplined (if restless) neighbor, whose successes in the field of war were cause for serious analysis and emulation, and who thereby elicited deep respect. When writing for officer-readers in his Study of War, he referred to Austria as a “Colossus” threatening to decimate him, an enemy neighbor of classic and worthy proportions, who was the subject of his writing “because they among all of our enemies have made the most advances in the art of war” (155).
Leave spiritual religion to the supreme being. We are all blind in this matter, erring in various ways” (Œuvres 9:6) 18 I have written extensively about Frederick’s catechism, its form, and its significance for thinking about Enlightenment theories of enmity; see Sara Eigen Figal, “When Brothers Are Enemies: Frederick the Great’s Catechism for War,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 43, no. 1 (2009): 21–36. 19 Frederick II, Essai sur l’amour-propre envisagé comme principe de morale, in Œuvres de Frédéric le Grand, 9:97–98.
It was with an appreciation for the cycles of war and peace that Frederick speculated upon tactical advances for a possible future war with Austria. Tacitly acknowledging that this defied hopes for a lasting peace, he wrote: “Prussians are under the necessity of thinking about war because they have a restless and turbulent neighbor” (49). He also noted that other peoples’ cycles of war and peace affect one’s own readiness to respond to all conditions, and thus constant study during peacetime is necessary: “It is particularly dangerous for a prince to allow the people to languish in a state of inactivity and to grow soft and effeminate at a time when the fatigues of war harden and discipline their neighbors” (71).