By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz
Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have continuously been intere ted in
errors produced by way of second-language beginners, both of their speech or
writing or either. in truth, rookies' mistakes were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for relatively a protracted time.
There were significant ways to the learn of learner ' errors .
namely Contrasti ve research and mistake Analysis.
The author's relevant purpose in penning this booklet has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and mistake research direction now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this path didn't conceal many features of blunders Analy i
which are handled within the current publication. The e-book is additionally meant to
provide practising academics with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they must deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this ebook relies at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and blunder research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over a number of years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and profitable. makes an attempt were made to offer the material
systematically. it's strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the instructing and examining of the fabric soft and easy.
It is was hoping that this ebook, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive angle in the direction of error, either at the a part of educators and
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Additional resources for Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis
1. Your classmate has got the top grade in the fmal exam. What forms would you use to congratulate him? 2. What English words or expressions would you use to compliment your friend on a beautiful dress she is wearing? 3. Your neighbor has just bought a new car. How would you compliment him on that? 4. Your cousin has just given birth to a baby. What compliment form( s) would you use to congratulate her. Part m. Carry out a contrastive analysis of the following features In English and Penlan: 1.
The markedness theory has been summarized by Celce-Murica & Hawkins as follows: It distinguishes members of a pair of related forms or structures by assuming that the marked member of a pair contains at least one more feature than the unmarked one. In addition, the unmarked (or natural) member of the pair is the one with a wider range of distribution than the marked one. 66). As Larsen-Freeman and Long ( 1991) put it, "the linguistic notions of markedness are usually defmed in tenns of complexity, relative frequency of use, or departure from something that is more basic, and typical in a language" (p.
Ard/ ' flour' 6 CVCC 2 l m ul ' hair', /paf 'foot', /mal 'wc' l muJ/ ·mouse', /ran/ 'leg' . /nan/ 'bread' ' broth ~ /drest/' hand', /ra tl ' right', /mast/ ' yoghurt' As can be seen, the number of consonants that can occur before and after vowels ranges from one to two. The onset can consist of only one consonant while the coda varies from one to two consonants in length. As opposed to the small number of syllable types in Persian, English has quite a wide range of syllables. 2 below. It must be remembered that here we are dealing with pronunciation of the key words and not their spe11ing.