By Eduard Imhof
Eduard Imhof's vintage ebook Cartographic reduction Presentation is once more on hand. in the self-discipline of cartography, few works are thought of classics within the feel of keeping their curiosity, relevance, and notion with the passage of time. One such paintings is Imhof's masterpiece on reduction illustration. As a special show of study and portrayal, this is often a great instance of the necessity for cartography to mix mind and photographs in fixing map layout difficulties. the variety, element, and clinical artistry of his ideas are provided in a educating context that places this paintings in a category on its own, with common importance.
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Extra resources for Cartographic Relief Presentation
Here, too, the technique of copper engraving led to the introduction of hachuring. Predecessors of hachures appear in French bird's-eye-view maps (oblique views), in which mountain shapes were clearly defined by outlines, slope lines and by lighting from the left. It was reasonable, also, to retain "left-illumination" for hachures in planimetrie representations. For this impression, the sections of the slope lines were drawn very finely, on the illuminated slopes of the mountains — normally the north-west sides - and very heavily on the shaded slopes.
The person conducting the test should be an experienced topographer and a good observer and, moreover, he should also pay attention to the geomorphological context. Before we turn to the various types of errors, two things must still be made clear. a) It is occasionally claimed that the accuracy of contour lines is independent of the contour interval. Theoretically and often also practically, (think of isolated contour lines in flat plains or of the photogrammetric plotting process), this is indeed, largely true.
Koppe's test method reveals errors at individual points and hence contour inaccuracies in their immediate vicinity. This test method, however, has gaps and does not cover all aspects of the contour image. Above all, it does not adequately test the small changes in contour lines. e. of nature and the map. Sometimes nature is replaced here by the method of random sampling; by especially accurate control contour mapping of small areas. 6. Some additional methods oi examining contour lines The shortcomings of the testing technique which employs the Koppe formula have repeatedly given rise to criticism; especially since the development of photogrammetry.