By David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is great, specifically, its background, its isolation, and weather, making it a distinct "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, edition and ecology. Its evolutionary background of model offer a wealth of knowledge at the functioning of the biosphere and its strength.
The Southern Ocean is the results of a background of approximately forty million years marked via the hole of the Straits south of Australia and South the US and extreme cooling. The violence of its climate, its very low temperatures, the formation of big ice-covered parts, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a global aside.
This e-book discusses the results for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the sector, together with endemism, slowed metabolism, sturdiness, gigantism, and its larval phases; positive factors which make this monstrous ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive techniques, scalable to paintings in severe environmental stipulations. this present day, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is dealing with international switch, relatively in neighborhood warming and acidification of water our bodies. not able emigrate additional south, how will she cope, if any, to viewers from the North?
- Designed for curious readers to find the titanic ocean surrounding the main remoted and so much inhospitable continent at the planet.
- Describes the Southern Ocean dealing with biodiversification because of international change
- Authored by way of scientists with adventure of expeditions to the Southern Ocean
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Extra info for Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean
Deep ocean circulation nevertheless had far less impact on global climate at that time than it does today [RUD 02]. Throughout the entire greenhouse period, the southern margins of Gondwana experienced a temperate climate and there was no ice cap [ZIN 82]. After reaching the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum during the Cenomanian, a period also corresponding to the highest global sea level ever recorded in over 250 million years, sea temperatures began to fall and global ocean circulation was modified.
This current flows along the Antarctic coasts, making two deep incursions into the Ross and Weddell Seas, where it joins the southern part of the spiral currents (gyres) present in these seas. 4). Furthermore, its flow rate is much lower (10 Sverdrups on average). It covers an area of high surface water primary productivity (photosynthesis by phytoplankton) in the Ross and Weddell Seas as well as on the continental shelf, facilitating the spread of species along the coast. 4. Map of the Southern Ocean, showing the main surface currents.
In spring, when the ice melts, this biomass is suddenly released into the water column. This triggers an explosion of life, or a planktonic bloom, which ensures the survival and development of a wide variety of living things. A small proportion of this biomass also flows towards the bottom to fuel the benthic communities. Antarctic krill is the main consumer of microalgae. During the austral summer, krill forms huge swarms, which in turn provide a source of food for many other consumers, fish, squid, penguins, and also some seals and species of whales, themselves prey to the ultimate predators: killer whales and leopard seals.