By Floris J. Bex
In this ebook a conception of reasoning with proof within the context of felony instances is built. the most topic of this examine isn't the legislation of proof yet particularly the rational technique of evidence, which contains developing, trying out and justifying situations approximately what occurred utilizing facts and common-sense wisdom. A relevant subject within the booklet is the research of ones reasoning, in order that complicated styles are made extra particular and transparent. This research makes use of tales approximately what occurred and arguments to anchor those tales in facts. therefore the argumentative and the narrative methods from the study in felony philosophy and felony psychology are mixed. as the ebook describes its topics in either an off-the-cuff and a proper type, it really is correct for students in criminal philosophy, AI, good judgment and argumentation thought. The booklet may also attract practitioners within the investigative and felony professions, who're attracted to the ways that they could and may cause with evidence.
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Additional info for Arguments, Stories and Criminal Evidence: A Formal Hybrid Theory
G. “fire”) can be inferred. When thus alternative explanations can be derived, a choice should be made with some priority mechanism. With causal generalizations prediction can also be modus-ponens-style but explanation must be done by “affirming the consequent”: given the consequent (the effect) the antecedent (the cause) is inferred since if the cause is true it implies the effect by modus ponens on the causal generalization (cf. 1). Of course, alternative explanations may be found in the same way and the best explanation must be determined with some priority mechanism on the various inferred causes that act as explanations for the effects.
Abduction involves solely the creation of new hypotheses, whereas IBE is also about testing and comparing hypotheses. 17 Note that Poole, Mackworth and Goebel’s (1997) distinction between causal and evidential reasoning is different from the one presented here. Their evidential reasoning is essentially what is here called explanatory reasoning and their causal reasoning is what is here called predictive reasoning. 18 For example, fire can cause visible smoke so the observation of smoke can be seen as evidence for the fact that there is a fire.
On the basis of this preliminary evidence one or more initial hypotheses will have to be imagined. Some of these initial hypotheses will be immediately discarded as implausible, while others have to be tested by searching for further evidence and then determining which of them are compatible with the new evidence. When a particular hypothesis has been chosen as the most likely, this choice should be justified by explicitly showing that it is most compatible with the evidence. As an example of this process, say that we are faced with a dead body of a man and we hypothesize that either the man had an accident, that he killed himself or that he was killed by another person or animal; we could also hypothesize that aliens killed him, but this scenario will usually be discarded because of its intrinsic implausibility.