By Grigoris Antoniou, Frank van van Harmelen
The improvement of the Semantic internet, with machine-readable content material, has the capability to revolutionize the area huge net and its use. A Semantic net Primer presents an creation and consultant to this rising box, describing its key principles, languages, and applied sciences. appropriate to be used as a textbook or for self-study by way of pros, it concentrates on undergraduate-level basic options and methods that might allow readers to continue with construction purposes on their lonesome. It contains routines, venture descriptions, and annotated references to suitable on-line fabrics. A Semantic net Primer is the single to be had ebook at the Semantic internet to incorporate a scientific therapy of the various languages (XML, RDF, OWL, and ideas) and applied sciences (explicit metadata, ontologies, and common sense and inference) which are relevant to Semantic net improvement. The e-book additionally examines such the most important comparable themes as ontology engineering and alertness situations. After an introductory bankruptcy, themes coated in succeeding chapters comprise XML and similar applied sciences that help semantic interoperability; RDF and RDF Schema, the normal facts version for machine-processable semantics; and OWL, the W3C-approved commonplace for an internet ontology language extra huge than RDF Schema; principles, either monotonic and nonmonotonic, within the framework of the Semantic internet; chosen software domain names and the way the Semantic internet would receive advantages them; the advance of ontology-based structures; and present debates on key matters and predictions for the longer term.
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Additional info for A Semantic Web Primer (Cooperative Information Systems)
1 shows a hierarchy for the university domain. Apart from subclass relationships, ontologies may include information such as • properties (X teaches Y) • value restrictions (only faculty members can teach courses) • disjointness statements (faculty and general staff are disjoint) • speciﬁcation of logical relationships between objects (every department must include at least ten faculty members) In the context of the Web, ontologies provide a shared understanding of a domain. Such a shared understanding is necessary to overcome differences in terminology.
ATTLIST item itemNo ID #REQUIRED quantity CDATA #REQUIRED comments CDATA #IMPLIED> Compared to the previous example, a new aspect is that the item element type is deﬁned to be empty. Another new aspect is the appearance of + after item in the deﬁnition of the order element type. : appears zero times or once *: appears zero or more times +: appears one or more times No cardinality operator means exactly once. In addition to deﬁning elements, we have to deﬁne attributes. This is done in an attribute list.
The search engines can look for pages that refer to a precise concept in an ontology instead of collecting all pages in which certain, generally ambiguous, keywords occur. In this way, differences in terminology between Web pages and the queries can be overcome. In addition, Web searches can exploit generalization/specialization information. If a query fails to ﬁnd any relevant documents, the search engine may suggest to the user a more general query. It is even conceivable for the engine to run such queries proactively to reduce the reaction time in case the TLFeBOOK TLFeBOOK 12 1 The Semantic Web Vision user adopts a suggestion.