By Carl Strikwerda
The 1st e-book to discover the historic improvement of Belgian politics, this groundbreaking research of the competition among Catholicism, Socialism and nationalism is key interpreting for an individual attracted to Europe sooner than global conflict I.
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What happens when two organizations that are both adopting bureaucratic methods oppose each other? Does the competition between different movements or institutions force rivals to become more bureaucratized to enhance their competitive advantage? If so, then the rise of mass movements in the late nineteenth century may have been a competition between rivals using similar tools. Perhaps bureaucracy was less a deadening general trend than a new set of weapons. Seen from this perspective, socialism may not have been so much creating a stultifying bureaucracy, as Michels portrayed it, as gearing up for battle against highly organized foes.
For 1939-71, Jean Neuville, La `Representativité' des syndicats, (Brussels and Paris: Etudes Sociales, 1960), pp. 116-17; Val Lorwin, "Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 28, no. 2 January 1975. Page 17 Finally, how did Catholics and Socialists learn to live together in a pluralistic society and even to cooperate to oppose fascism and communism? This study will view the rise of socialism as one part, albeit a large one, of mass politics in which conflicting loyalties linguistic nationalism, religion, alliances with different interest groups all competed with socialism for the allegiance of Belgian workers.
J. 45 Strengthened by their growth immediately after World War I, the Socialists continued to try to build a social democratic system. In the post-World War II era, Belgium gradually came to be considered a corporatist, social welfare state comparable in many respects to Scandinavia or Germany. The system of Page 15 unemployment insurance that provides subsidies through labor unions throughout many countries in Europe is still known as the "Ghent system" after the Belgian city where it was invented in 1901.